Friday, February 7, 2020

Consumer Behavior Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 words - 1

Consumer Behavior - Essay Example This essay focuses mostly on answering nine questions on the topic of consumer behavior. The first question focuses on understanding the statement that Generation Y consumers continue to perplex Marketers. The researcher explaines the terminology of Y Generation and provides detailed analysis on the question. Second question is focused on discussing the statement "Think globally, act locally" in relation to the diffusion of consumer culture. Other questions that were answered describe discussion on the differences, that are involved in buying something for yourself versus buying something for someone else, discussing why children and teenagers form such important segments and demonstrating how marketers might reach these young consumers, outlining the traditional family life cycle, applying it to current US society, and then evaluating the need for its updating, discussing on how demographics are essential measures in consumer behavior analysis with particular reference to the US con sumer and so on. The essay also answers on some practical questiones, such as "Select any three religious, ethnic or social groups and show how the values and attitudes of consumers in each shape their behaviors, and the strategies marketers can use to reach them". The researcher provides deep analysis on the topic and gives references to the real examples too. He also shares some personal practical knowledge to answer questions, such as "consumption subculture to which a member of your family or extended family belongs", provides examples and description needed.

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Principles of Management Essay Example for Free

Principles of Management Essay The fundamental aim of any given business is to make profits and maximize those profits. Organizations therefore in its day to day business activities will always aim at making the maximum profits at a very low cost of production. This basically means that a company wants to make very high profits without incurring a lot of expenses. In minimizing their cost of production while still ensuring that maximum profits are realized, sometimes companies violate regulations and laws governing them. It is therefore of utmost importance that there are other external bodies charged with the function of carrying out checks and balances to ensure that companies, businesses and organizations in general do not violate laid down regulations as they attempt to maximize their profits at very low costs of production and also that the consumers gets the products at very affordable prices and that the environment is not polluted by the by-products of the manufacturing companies. Therefore the first purpose of regulating companies is to ensure that the consumer on the ground is not shortchanged in terms of prices. This basically means that without regulations a company may charge unreasonably high prices for its products to the disadvantage of the customer. The regulatory bodies therefore ensure that a standard price for every particular product is set and companies are given a limit and extent up to which they are not expected to exceed. Should there be a violation by any company the regulatory body always steps in and takes an immediate action and if the company had no justifications whatsoever to go against the laid down regulations, disciplinary measures against the company are the next step. Business regulation is viewed by many as a way of enhancing better business environment. Regulation is also done to ensure that companies give consumers quality products for their money. It has been observed over the past years that failure to keenly monitor a company’s activities leads to recklessness and negligence by manufacturers so that consumers get very lo0w quality products. The laws governing the regulation of a company therefore provide for a regulatory body whose function is basically to check the kind of products a company produces in terms of quality. The issue of quality is almost synonymous to suitability of a product for use by customers in terms of safety. A product could be of low quality in that it is not up to the standards expected of such a product. For instance, if it is a vehicle it would be said to be of low quality if it fails to cover the mileage a car of a similar make would be expected to make. Quality is also looked at in terms of suitability so that it is important for the regulatory board to establish whether a company is making are suitable for use. For instance, if it is a company that manufactures food stuffs, then the regulatory body must ensure that the foods manufactured are actually edible and safe for human consumption. In case of medical products they must ensure chemicals used in the manufacture of medicines have no side effects on the body of a patient. In case of electronic products it is vital to ensure that the are safe so that they don’t blow up on the user of that product. It is for this reason that every country has regulatory bodies known as bureaus of standards of goods and products in general are maintained by the manufacturers. Regulation by external regulatory bodies is also done to ensure do not carelessly dispose off waste products thereby polluting the environment. Most companies if left to go unregulated would cause a l0ot of harm to the environment. This is because of the kind of waste products they produce. Most of the waste products are not only toxic but also poisonous. The regulatory bodies are therefore very instrumental in ensuring that companies treat their waste products prior to releasing them to the outside world. Better still, they ensure that even with the w3aste products being treated, they are disposed in the right place and manner. A case scenario of a company that used to produce to waste products that were toxic and then carelessly release the waste products into the open air. This in turn caused the surrounding residents great suffering as there was an outbreak of diseases. The regulatory body immediately intervened and the company was closed down indefinitely until they found a lasting solution. It has also been observed that most industries would rather drain their waste products in the water . odies notwithstanding their toxic levels so that they cut down expenses of having to dispose the waste products in the right way. This kills the aquatic animals thus destroying the environment. The regulatory bodies in such cases are very quick to ensure that no life both human and that of animals is put in danger. Regulation is also done to ensure prompt payment of taxes by companies. Every company in business in every country is required to pay taxes to the government of that particular country. This forms a source of income for the government. Most companies as discussed earlier are very evasive because their main goal is to make maximum profits. Thus they sometimes attempt to evasion of payment of taxes in order to make as high profits. It is no secret that even the consumers on the ground who are the back bone of the business field are more often than not treated very unfairly by the businessmen as they attempt to achieve their principal of maximum profit at the lowest possible cost. Manufacturers and owners of companies always want to be beneficiaries of their work at no extra cost thus tax evasion and avoidance is very common in the business field. However, they ignore the fact that by engaging in such malpractices of tax evasion and avoidance the government stands s to lose a lot in terms of revenue and as a result the country’s population suffers as the government is no longer able to sustain their needs due to insufficient revenues. Note that the manufacturers have had nothing to lose as their businesses still go on as desired. It is also important to note that failure of companies to pay taxes automatically means that a lot more will be demanded from the individuals thus suppressing the common citizen. Most people don’t find the importance of paying taxes. Tax is an obvious source from which countries can generate cash to fund human development. It is also one of the means by which they can begin to free themselves from dependence on handouts and the punitive conditions often attached to aid. Tax can also help countries determine their own route out of poverty. How Tax Policies Fleece the Poor, Christian Aid, September 2005, page6) Regulatory bodies therefore ensure that companies pay taxes as they should to avoid suppressing the poor people. Research indicates that evasion and avoidance of taxes by companies has led to a considerable increase in Value Added Tax which is the tax imposed on common goods used by ordinary people therefore placing an unfairly heavy burden on poor people. Regulation of companies is also done to ensure that employers respect labor laws put in place to protect rights of employees at the work place. More often than not employers ignore the rights of their employees thus employees are made to work under very poor conditions. Therefore the regulatory bodies in conjunction with non-governmental bodies come together in defending the rights if the workers and ensuring that companies follow the laws governing the rights of the employees to the letter. The regulatory bodies also ensure that workers are not treated unfairly in terms of wages by ensuring that they are paid above the minimum wage. It also ensures that employees are not overworked in term s of work load and the number of hours that they work. The regulatory bodies are also very keen in terms of the age limit so that companies do not employ underage employees in order to have cheap labor. Another major function of the regulatory bodies is to ensure that companies submit annual returns as they should and within the required time. The annual returns and reports contain the activities of the company for a given period usually one year and include income generated, profits made, expenses incurred and losses made. Most companies default in the submission of these annual reports and returns in order to conceal the profits made and consequently evade being taxed. They also default in submission of the reports as a way of covering up for any activity or activities carried out in the year that contravened any laid down rules. The regulatory bodies therefore step in to ensure that all companies submit their annual returns and reports and that they do so within the required time. Regulatory bodies also play a major role in ensuring that companies comply with the general requirements of operating and running of a company. This is in relation to the formation of a company, who makes the board of governors, who constitutes members of a company, shareholders and all other requirements a company is expected to comply with in its operations. The regulatory bodies are always in the frontline in the protection of investors so that companies do not manipulate them as far as investment is concerned. From the roles discussed earlier, it is very clear that a regulatory body is of great importance in the business field as it ensures that companies operate without the slightest form of flaws. From the discussion, it is very clear. From the discussion, it is clearly spelt out that companies cannot by any means regulate themselves. This is for the obvious reasons that regulations of their operations are obviously incompatible with the fundamental principle with their fundamental purpose, goal and objective of making maximum profits at the lowest possible cost. It is unrealistic and almost impossible to expect that companies will regulate themselves while it is very clear that their main objective in business and the task of regulation totally are not synonymous. It is therefore in order to conclude that if companies are left to be in charge of themselves and asked to regulate themselves while it is very clear that their many objectives in business and the task of regulation totally do no rhyme. It is therefore in order to conclude that if companies are left to be in charge of themselves, they would take advantage, exploit people and the consumer on the ground would be on the losing end. It is therefore correct to state that regulation of companies and other business organizations can only be successfully done by external regulatory bodies separate from the company itself who have no interest whatsoever in either the company or activities. Therefore it is only with the right regulatory measures that a fair playground in the business industry can be achieved. This can be achieved by ensuring that regulatory bodies are established for checks and balances of companies and business organizations at large. Regulation by eternal regulatory bodies has also played a major role in establishing fair and healthy competition among businessmen therefore has a level playground to do their business.

Monday, January 20, 2020

Frankenstein Versus Prometheus Essay -- Compare Contrast Essays

Frankenstein Versus Prometheus What do a god and a crazy doctor have in common? Nothing right! Wrong! In the stories Prometheus and Frankenstein the protagonists are very alike in many ways. They both tried to play god, steal, and they both get punished for what they did.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In the stories Prometheus and Frankenstein the protagonists both tried to play God in their own way. They did this by trying to create their own being or race to worship them. In the story Prometheus, the protagonist Prometheus takes all the human beings under his wing and teaches them the beginning of civilization and changes their lives completely. "He grudged men all the gifts that Prometheus had given them and he was angry with Prometheus for granting to these wretched creatures of an hour the ability to shape their lives into something better and to rise their thoughts up to heaven itself." Pg.5. In the story Frankenstein, the protagonist creates a creature to worship and control. Dr. Frankenstein is trying to be a god which is why he is trying to create this new race. "I became myself capable of bestowing animation upon lifeless matter. What had been the study and desire of the wisest men since the creation of the world was now within my grasp." Pg.167. To h old their roles of playing Gods both characters in each story had to steal to get the creation they wanted, which is what they both did.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Prometheus and Frankenstein both stole different things to achieve their own creations but their ...

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Distribution and constiuents of fluids Essay

Constituents of body fluid – The human body consists mostly of water, and is a major constituent to the human body and vital organs; of this 90% include blood plasma, lymph, urine, saliva, digestive juices, bile, cerebrospinal fluid and tissue fluid. Water enables substances to be transported throughout the body, red blood cells for example, as wells as supplying the medium required for metabolic reaction to take place (respiration). Without water the progression of these fluids would not be possible. Water is constantly being transported between the fluid compartments of the body. Water has five main functions in the body, of which includes: ‘Cell life – distribute nutrients to cells i.e. vitamins, minerals and glucose Chemical and metabolic reactions – removal of waste products (toxins) from the organs Transport of nutrients – participates in the breakdown of food Body temperature regulation – water has a large heat capacity that allows it to help limit any changes to an individual’s body temperature in a certain environment. For example the release of heat when the surrounding temperature is higher than body temperature Elimination of waste’ Urea – Urea is an organic molecule made up of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen. Urea is a common constituent of blood and other various bodily fluids, and is formed from ammonia in the kidney and liver. Ammonia is produced through the breakdown of proteins during tissue metabolism. Metabolic reactions that take place within the body can produce a surplus of amino acids of which can be converted into the waste product otherwise known  as urea through the process of deamination in the liver. Proteins obtained through an individual’s diet are broken down into amino acids. The excess amino acids made during this process are unable to be stored in the body as they can become toxic; therefore they would then have to be converted into a less toxic urea before ultimately being removed as a component of urine. Acids, bases and salt – Acids are a substance that has a pH less than 7. There are two different types of acid: Weak acid – An organic compound with a minimal amount of dissociated molecules Strong acid – An organic compound with a large amount of dissociated molecules Acids are a corrosive substance with a pH less than 7. Acidity is caused by a high concentration of hydrogen ions. Bases are a substance with a pH higher than 7, and have a high concentration of hydroxyl ions. Bases can react with acids in order to neutralise them in order to form salt and water. Bases are normally metal oxides or metal hydroxides. Sodium hydroxide for example is a base. Acids react with reactive metals in order to make a salt. Salts are a compound formed by the neutralisation of an acid by a base, for example metal oxide. This is a result of hydrogen atoms in an acid being replaced by positive ions. Bases that have are able to dissolve into water are known as alkalis. Sodium hydroxide is an alkali as it dissolves in water, copper oxide cannot dissolve water therefore is not an alkali. Hydrochloric acid is produced in the stomach, consisting of chloride and hydrogen. Carbonic acid is produced in red blood cells consisting of carbon dioxide and water, of which is why demanding exercise can lead to the  increase in the acidity of the individual’s blood. Control of osmosis – Salts are a major constituent of blood, and the levels both inside and outside of the cell, of which can be controlled by ATP. The sodium salts and chloride ions are continuously pumped back out of the cell each time they enter a cell, whereas potassium are pumped back into the cell as they leave a cell. The movement of salts enable the individual in assisting osmosis through the cell membrane. Isotonic Osmotic pressure outside the cell is equal to that inside of the cell. Water moving into and out of the cell is the same. Hypotonic Osmotic pressure is lower. Water moving into the cell is greater than that of which is moving out of the cell. Hypertonic Osmotic pressure is higher. Water moving out of the cell is greater than that of which is moving into the cell. Role of electrolytes – Electrolytes are compounds that dissociate into ions when they are dissolved in water, thereby causing them to become electrically charged particles, meaning that they have the ability to conduct electrical impulses. The electrical impulses created are what the body needs in order to make muscle cells contract. Electrolytes can become either cations (positively charged) or anions (negatively charged). Essential minerals – Some electrolytes are considered essential minerals, meaning that they are unable to be made within the body and are an essential part of health. The major constituent for a cell is potassium The components of amino acids and proteins Chloride is needed in order to produce hydrochloric acid in the stomach Magnesium of which can be found in bone and teeth, plays a key role in the contraction of muscles as well as an activator for various enzymes. Another component of bone and teeth is phosphorous and calcium, with calcium being required for blood clotting along with aiding in the contraction of muscles. There are trace elements present in the body. These essential minerals are required in only small amounts. The food and fluids consumed by an individual contain mineral salts, which are used to form electrolytes which dissolve in the fluids of the body. Electrolytes can be found in blood, urine, in the fluid contained in the body’s cells, and in the fluid surround the cells. Sodium, calcium, chloride, magnesium, potassium are the most commonly found electrolytes within the body. Electrolytes play a key role in helping the heart, nerves, and muscles to function. They also play role in keeping fluid levels normal in different body compartments. Levels of electrolytes in the body’s fluid compartments are controlled through the movement of electrolytes moving into/ out of the compartments. The kidneys have a hand in filtering electrolytes from the blood in order to keep the levels constant. Hormones such as the antidiuretic hormone and parathyroid hormone for example, help to regulate electrolyte balance. Acid-base balance – In order to function properly the blood needs the right balance between acid and basic (alkaline) compounds. This is known as acid-base balance. The kidneys and lungs within the body work in order to maintain acid-base balance; the slightest of variations from its normal range can have detrimental effects to the body’s vital organs. Acid and alkaline levels are measured on a pH scale. Increase in acidity can  cause pH levels to fall, whereas an increase in alkaline levels causes pH levels to rise. pH – pH measures the amount of hydrogen ions that are in a given solution. The pH scale ranges from the values of 1 to 14. Number 7 in the scale is known as neutral, water for example is a neutral substance. From 1 to 7, the lower the number on the scale the stronger the acid; whereas from 7 to 14 the higher the number the stronger the base. Importance of maintaining hydrogen concentration in body fluid – Hydrogen ion concentration is important to the structure and function of living systems. Slight changes can cause changes in ‘larger molecules and molecular complexes composing organisms.’ Buffer systems are put in place in order to maintain and stabilise the pH of body fluids. Phosphate buffers – These chemical buffers are essential in order to maintain normal hydrogen concentration in intracellular fluids, as their concentration inside the cells are many times greater than the concentration of the bicarbonate buffers. Metabolic activities are controlled by enzymes, of which can also be known as organic catalysts. Protein buffers – Are similar to the composition of phosphate buffers, as they include haemoglobin, are especially important within the cells. Chemical buffers of the body fluids are the first line of defence to prevent any changes in hydrogen ion concentration; any acid/base added to the body fluids immediately react with the buffers in order to prevent any changes in acid-base balance. Buffer systems – Chemical buffers are in place in order to resist changes in pH levels, and are the body’s first line of defence. A buffer solution is a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base or a weak base and its conjugate acid; and is used to stabilize the pH of a liquid. The ability of an acid-base mixture  resist sudden changes in pH is known as buffer action. Tissue cells and vital organs of the body are sensitive to the slightest of changes in the pH environment; and in high concentrations, acids and bases can be highly damaging to living cells. Buffer solutions are put in place as a means of keeping pH at a nearly constant level in various chemical applications. One such buffer solution can be found in the blood. Several buffering agents bind hydrogen ions in order to stop any change in pH. Extracellular buffers include bicarbonate and ammonia, and intracellular buffers include proteins and phosphates. Buffers are in place in order to work against sudden and large changes in the pH of body fluids by Releasing hydrogen ions when the pH increases (acids) Binding hydrogen ions when the pH decreases (bases) There are three main chemical buffer systems in the body: Carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system Phosphate buffer system Protein buffer system Solutes – Materials can be transported between the cytoplasm and the outside of the cell; this is known as the active transport process (ATP), whereas the movement of other molecules is known as passive transport which does not require energy. Active transport can be used in order to get the molecules to go against the concentration gradient; this can be done by either facilitated diffusion or osmosis. Passive transport of molecule depends on its ability to be able to pass through the cell membrane, as well as that of the concentration gradient which allows molecules to diffuse from an area of high concentration to an  area of low concentration. Molecules such as gases, lipids and water have the ability to pass through the cell membrane fairly easily. However other molecules such as glucose, amino acids, and ions do not have the same ability. Some of these molecules can enter and leave the cell through the use of facilitated transport, where the molecules can move down the concentration gradient through protein channels in the membrane. This process does not require any form of energy. Role of water in relation to properties – Specific heat capacity – Water has a large heat capacity which aids in limiting any changes in an individual’s body temperature in a warm or cold environment. As a result of the high specific heat capacity of water, its role in temperature regulation is very important. Water enables the body to release heat when the ambient temperature is higher than that of the individual’s body temperature. The body starts to sweat, and the evaporation of water from the skins surface occurs, in order to cool the body down. Surface tension – ‘Surface tension is a contractive tendency of the surface of a liquid that allows it to resist an external force. ‘For example the floating of some objects on the surface of water, even though they are denser than water, some insects however have the ability to run on the water’s surface. The cohesive forces of liquid molecules are responsible for surface tension, and are responsible for many of the behaviours of liquids. In addition, water has adhesive properties, so that the pleural fluid which covers the membrane of the lungs stops them from sticking to the inside of the ribcage. Distribution of water – There are two main fluid compartments in the human body: Intracellular fluid (ICF) Extracellular fluid (ECF) Water is the major solvent of all body fluid compartments. Total body water averages around 60% body weight in young males and 50% of body weight in young adult females. The percentage of body weight that water occupies depends on the amount of adipose tissue (fat) an individual has. The overall water in the body involves water inside of the cells known as intracellular fluid (ICF compartment), found inside the bilayered cell plasma membrane which is around 28 litres, which makes up around 60% to 67% of body water; and the extracellular water located outside of the cells which is around 14 litres makes up the other 33% to 40%. Tissue fluid also known as the intracellular and the interstitial fluid have the majority of the component of the extracellular fluid as it has 11 litres compared to 3 litres of plasma. The lymph has 10% of the tissue fluid that form in the remainders of the plasma. ECF is composed of fluid outside of the cells and consists of three subdivisions: Interstitial compartment Plasma compartment Third space (transcellular fluid) The interstitial compartment is the fluid space which surrounds the cells of a given tissue, and is filled with interstitial fluid. Interstitial fluid allows for the movement of ions, proteins, and nutrients across the cell membrane. The fluid is continuously recollected by the lymphatic channels. Excess fluid in the interstitial compartment causes oedema to develop. Intravascular plasma can be found within the vascular system and makes up a fourth of ECF. The third space is part of the ECF compartment and is otherwise known as transcellular fluid. Examples of third space include: Peritoneal fluid Pleural fluid Cerebrospinal fluid Synovial fluid Renal tubular fluid Intercellular fluid is the main component of extracellular fluid; ‘other components include plasma and transcellular fluid. Intercellular fluid surrounds the body’s cells, and provides a way for delivering materials to the cells, intercellular communication, and removal of metabolic waste. The fluid found in the intercellular spaces are made up of water, amino acids, sugars, fatty acids, coenzymes, hormones, neurotransmitters, salts and cellular products. ‘ Plasma makes up approximately 25% of the body’s total extracellular fluid. Plasma proteins serve several functions, of which include maintaining the proper distribution of water between the blood and tissues; transportation of nutrients, metabolites, and hormones throughout the body, defending against infection etc. Diseases can alter the amount of plasma proteins that are produced and their concentration in the blood. Role of intercellular fluid in homeostasis – In homeostasis, intercellular fluid also known as interstitial and tissue fluid, plays a vital role as the fluid is pushed out of the arterial end of the capillary by the blood pressure, after the blood has been pushed out through the muscular arterioles and capillaries. During this stage carbon dioxide is low. Tissue fluid flows around the cells and in between giving out raw materials through the use of osmosis, facilitated diffusion and diffusion etc. The metabolic waste is passed in the opposite direction to the cells and into the tissue fluid. However if the waste materials were allowed to accumulate, this could ultimately cause disruption and lead to the cells dying before death occurring. References http://www.nestle-waters.com, (2014). Functions of water in human body. [online] Available at: http://www.nestle-waters.com/healthy-hydration/water-fonctions-in-human-body [Accessed 13 Oct. 2014]. Bbc.co.uk, (2014). BBC – GCSE Bitesize: Acids and bases. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_aqa/acids/acidsbasesrev1.shtml [Accessed 13 Oct. 2014]. Biology-online.org, (2014). Intercellular fluid – definition from Biology-Online.org. [online] Available at: http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Intercellular_fluid [Accessed 13 Oct. 2014]. Chemical Buffer Systems- Acid-Base Balance. (2014). Boundless. [online] Available at: https://www.boundless.com/physiology/textbooks/boundless-anatomy-and-physiology-textbook/fluids-and-acid-base-balance-26/acid-base-balance-248/chemical-buffer-systems-1217-4810/ [Accessed 13 Oct. 2014]. Healthline.com, (2014). Acid-Base Balance | Definition and Patient Education. [online] Available at: http://www.healthline.com/health/acid-base-balance#Overview1 [Accessed 13 Oct. 2014]. Inkling.com, (2014). Inkling. [online] Available at: https://www.inkling.com/read/medical-physiology-rodney-rhoades-david-bell-4th/chapter-23/fluid-compartments-of-the-body [Accessed 22 Oct. 2014]. Inkling.com, (2014). Inkling. [online] Available at: https://www.inkling.com/read/marks-medical-biochemistry-lieberman-marks-4th/chapter-45/i–plasma-proteins-maintain [Accessed 13 Oct. 2014]. Media.lanecc.edu, (2014). Chemical Buffer Systems and Acid-Base Balance. [online] Available at: http://media.lanecc.edu/users/driscolln/RT127/Softchalk/Acid_Base_Lesson/Acid_Base_Lesson4.html [Accessed 13 Oct. 2014]. Research.vet.upenn.edu, (2014). Milk Urea Nitrogen. [online] Available at: http://research.vet.upenn.edu/DairyPoultrySwine/DairyCattle/MUN/MilkUreaNitrogen/tabid/1596/Default.aspx [Accessed 13 Oct. 2014]. Ensminger, M. and Ensminger, A. (1993). Foods & Nutrition Encyclopedia, Two Volume Set. 2nd ed. CRC Press, 1993, p.4. Cnx.org, (2014). OpenStax CNX. [online] Available at: http://cnx.org/contents/75987407-1137-404b-9a3c-00d115b2dff9@3/Body_Fluids_and_Fluid_Compartm [Accessed 13 Oct. 2014]. Fastbleep.com, (2014). Chemical principles: Properties of water – Biochemistry | Fastbleep. [online] Available at: http://www.fastbleep.com/biology-notes/40/116/1166 [Accessed 13 Oct. 2014]. Howard Perlman, U. (2014). Surface Tension (Water Properties), USGS Water Science School. [online] Water.usgs.gov. Available at: http://water.usgs.gov/edu/surface-tension.html [Accessed 13 Oct. 2014].

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Overview of Systemic Functional Linguistics

Systemic functional linguistics is the  study of the relationship between language and its functions in social settings. Also known as  SFL, systemic functional grammar, Hallidayan linguistics, and systemic linguistics. Three strata make up the linguistic system in SFL: meaning (semantics), sound (phonology), and wording or lexicogrammar (syntax, morphology, and lexis). Systemic functional linguistics treats grammar as a meaning-making resource and insists on the interrelation of form and meaning. This study was developed in the 1960s by British  linguist  M.A.K. Halliday (b. 1925), who had been influenced by the work of the Prague School and British linguist J.R. Firth (1890-1960). Examples and Observations SL [systemic linguistics] is an avowedly functionalist approach to language, and it is arguably the functionalist approach which has been most highly developed. In contrast to most other approaches, SL explicitly attempts to combine purely structural information with overtly social factors in a single integrated description. Like other functionalist frameworks, SL is deeply concerned with the purposes of language use. Systemicists constantly ask the following questions: What is this writer (or speaker) trying to do? What linguistic devices are available to help them do it, and on what basis do they make their choices?(Robert Lawrence Trask and Peter Stockwell, Language and Linguistics: The Key Concepts. Routledge, 2007)that language use is functionalthat its function is to make meaningsthat these meanings are influenced by the social and cultural context in which they are exchangedthat the process of using language is a semiotic process, a process of making meaning by choosing.Four M ain ClaimsWhile individual scholars naturally have different research emphases or application contexts, common to all systemic linguists is an interest in language as social semiotic (Halliday 1978)--how people use language with each other in accomplishing everyday social life. This interest leads systemic linguists to advance four main theoretical claims about language:These four points, that language use is functional, semantic, contextual and semiotic, can be summarized by describing the systemic approach as a functional-semantic approach to language.(Suzanne Eggins, An Introduction to Systemic Functional Linguistics, 2nd ed. Continuum, 2005)Three Kinds of Social-Functional NeedsAccording to Halliday (1975), language has developed in response to three kinds of social-functional needs. The first is to be able to construe experience in terms of what is going on around us and inside us. The second is to interact with the social world by negotiating social roles and attitudes. The th ird and final need is to be able to create messages with which we can package our meanings in terms of what is New or Given, and in terms of what the starting point for our message is, commonly referred to as the Theme. Halliday (1978) calls these language functions metafunctions and refers to them as ideational, interpersonal and textual respectively.Hallidays point is that any piece of language calls into play all three metafunctions simultaneously.(Peter Muntigl and Eija Ventola, Grammar: A Neglected Resource in Interaction Analysis? New Adventures in Language and Interaction, ed. by Jà ¼rgen Streeck. John Benjamins, 2010)Choice as a Basic Systemic Functional ConceptIn Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) the notion of choice is fundamental. Paradigmatic relations are regarded as primary, and this is captured descriptively by organizing the basic components of the grammar in interrelated systems of features representing the meaning potential of a language. A language is viewed as a system of systems, and the linguists task is to specify the choices involved in the process of instantiating this meaning potential in actual texts through the resources available for expression in the language. Syntagmatic relations are viewed as derived from systems by means of realization statements, which for each feature specify the formal and structural consequences of selecting that particular feature. The term choice is typically used for features and their selection, and systems are said to display choice relations. Choice relations are posited not only at the level of individual categories such as definiteness, tense and number but also at higher levels of text planning (as in, e.g., the grammar of speech functions). Halliday often stresses the importance of the notion of choice: By text . . . we understand a continuous process of semantic choice. Text is meaning and meaning is choice (Halliday, 1978b:137).(Carl Bache, Grammatical Choice and Communicative Motivation: A Radical Systemic Approach. Systemic Functional Linguistics: Exploring Choice, ed. by Lise Fontaine, Tom Bartlett, and Gerard OGrady. Cambridge University Press, 2013)

Friday, December 27, 2019

The Role Of Visual Spatial Relation On Cognitive And...

Visual spatial relation is a cognitive process that relates to the ability to perceive objects in relation to others, which employs the cognitive processes perception and problem solving. This principle was brought to the forefront by Rauscher et al (1993), which developed a theory about spatial- temporal abilities labeled the Mozart effect. Rauscher originally tested the Mozart effect by comparing spatial ability test results of a group that sat in silence prior to testing, and a group that listened to Mozart or Schubert prior to testing. The Mozart effect, therefore, indicates that listening to Mozart before testing positively affected and increased test results. The introduction of this idea to the psychological field spurred further replication and expansion experiments, one of which was conducted by Nantais and Schellenberg (1999). These researchers expanded on the theory by testing the effect of 10 minutes of Mozart’s Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major on test results in c omparison with the effect of 10 minutes of the short story The Last Rung on the Latter. The experiment performed in this internal assessment was a replication of Nantais and Schellenburg’s (1999) experiment on the Mozart effect in older children. In the research replication, the aim of the study was to test the effect of environmental stimuli on visual spatial ability. It was hypothesized for the replication study that student participant preference would lead to better spatial ability performance andShow MoreRelatedWho Is Chris The California Department Of Education?1619 Words   |  7 Pagesutilize a great deal of cognitive function to do this in the absence of certain motor skills. Chris’s skill in one particular cognitive domain, attention maintenance, emerges when he tries to reach desired objects and underlies growth in other aspects of cognitive development, such as cause-and-effect, spatial relationships, and problem solving. Regardless of Chris’s succe ss in autonomously reaching the object, the process of trying to complete his goal exercises these cognitive skills. For the purposesRead MoreLiterature Review : Cognitive Load1018 Words   |  5 PagesReview Cognitive load is the degree of effort that an action requires for completion, associated with working memory and characterised by elements such as reaction time and accuracy, especially within the context of conflicting stimulus (Lavie, 2010). A facet of the load theory of attention, closely intertwined with concepts such as perceptual load, or how the degree of effort it takes to maintain focus on a specific stimulus, cognitive load can be seen to focus more heavily on the problem solvingRead MoreThe Human Brain Is The Most Complex Organ Of The Body1866 Words   |  8 Pagesstudy each facet of cognitive development from each perspective of the human lifespan from birth to death. The first official stage of development is called the prenatal stage. Growth and brain development all start at birth. The prenatal stage determines initial intelligence and presents any psychological disorders that may have already occurred. An infant is highly affected by the mother’s use of drugs and alcohol. The drug use can permanently damage the baby’s brain and cognitive ability. MothersRead MoreRole of the Brain in Determining Cognitive Functioning1163 Words   |  5 Pagesbrain and its parts play a significant role in determining cognitive functioning. Cognitive functions may be defined as the abilities of a person to process information and thoughts. The brain consists of different areas, but only specific areas have an impact on cognitive functioning. The tragic case of a rail-road construction foreman known as Phineas Gage in 1848 showed the relation between certain areas of the brain and their support for specific cognitive functions. Phineas traumatic in jury hasRead MoreThe PFC, Executive Function, and Dysfunction Essay2534 Words   |  11 Pagesand compare to the role of a conductor or CEO of a large company. When PFC malfunctions, due to the onset of brain injury, disease, or congenital defect it is unable to perform its function as the executive officer and therefore causes the condition of executive dysfunction (ED). This paper examines the important relationships between the PFC, EF, and ED their effect upon human behavior. This dialogue will provide an appreciation of the PFC, its neural connections, and its relation to EF. AdditionallyRead MoreNegative Effects Of Video Games1394 Words   |  6 Pagesultimately they are an evil temptation that’s more bad than good.† Sadly this assumption made by most parents doesn’t carry any basis. Despite the fact there’s scientific proof that links playing video games during adolescence to creativity, better problem-solving skills, enhanced memory, and ultimately a more well-rounded child, parents still seem to protest any sort of ‘screen-time’ for their children. According to a study done by Isabel Granic and published by American psychologist, video games canRead MoreVideo Games And Its Effects2390 Words   |  10 Pagesgames are actually quite beneficial to brain development. Many studies have shown that people that play video games have significant improvement in areas of brain function such as reasoning and problem solving. Certain video games aid in the decision making process by requiring the gamer to figure out problems that require in depth thinking to solve. Not only can these games help the individual, but also the world. Games can also serve as a way for people to practice social interaction. Video gamesRead More Sex Differences and the Degree to Which They Exist in Men and Women4148 Words   |  17 Pagesthis article by breaking it up into the same sub-topics Deaux did and writing summaries of what he found about each. Cognitive Skills: -Mathematical Ability: In this area he found that men tend to be able to do some specific mental tasks better, such tasks were metal rotation and tests the involved horizontally-vertically manipulating objects. He found no differences in spatial visualization that required more sequential and analytic strategy. As well there was evidence that training could alterRead MoreGaming And The Media Industry1821 Words   |  8 Pagescreating tension among their players, but that is yet to be completely proven. What is in the process of being proven however, is their ability to increase cognitive functions. According to an article in American Psychologist, first person shooters have been determined to increase the speed and effectiveness of attention allocation, help improve spatial awareness, and increase mental rotation skills, which will increase the efficiency of multitasking (Granic, 68). Several different experiments have contributedRead MoreReview of Related Literature and Studies3079 Words   |  13 Pagesthis trend was rooted in several social processes that were related to decreasing gender stratification in societies in general. According to Van Scotten (1991), every society is organized by a gender and role. In other words, every culture has processes by which people are socialized in to sex roles. Of these, sex is almost universally the most basic social category. Women and men have generally been treated more equally in education than in other areas of society. In general, individual’s educational

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Siddhartha Essays Form, Style, and Content - 738 Words

Form, Style, and Content in Siddhartha Joseph Mileck asserts in Hermann Hesse: Life and Art that Siddhartha is a perfect exemplification of what he calls, conscious craftsmanship. For Mileck, Hesse consciously synchronized form and substance in Siddhartha to best illustrate a feeling of unity and the journey through the mind, body, and soul. In Siddhartha, Hesse consciously crafted a piece that is unified in form, style, and content, and created an atmosphere in which each one of these elements is perfectly complementary with the others. In order to communicate most accurately the inner journey of Siddhartha through the three stages of experience, Hesse maintains appropriate rhythm and form throughout the novel. In†¦show more content†¦Hesse also uses the symbolism of the river to unify Siddharthas experiences. The river serves as a separation between the experiences of the mind and the spirit on the one side, and the experiences of the body and the senses on the other. However, while the river serves as a seeming separation between these two lands, and experiences, the river also serves as the unifying principle in that the experiences of the soul are located at the rivers edge, between lifes two extremes. It is the river, which before served as an apparent division, which ultimately teaches Siddhartha the most important lesson of all - the unreality of time and the illusion of division. Hesse also consciously employs certain mechanisms of style to exemplify Siddharthas inner states. Hesse throughout the novel uses a characteristic triple rhythm. Each of the three stages of Siddharthas life, reflective of the three realms of experience, comprises an endless series of three-beat actional patterns. For example, sentences frequently consist of sequences of three words, three phrases, of three clauses, and sometimes of combinations of two or even all of these triads. This can be seen in the very first sentence of the novel when Hesse writes, In the shade of the house, in theShow MoreRelatedScience and Technology13908 Words   |  56 Pages2009 Award Winning Essays Organized by Supported by T he Goi Peace Foundation U N ESC O Japan Airlines Foreword The International Essay Contest for Young People is one of the peace education programs organized by the Goi Peace Foundation. The annual contest, which started in the year 2000, is a UNESCO/Goi Peace Foundation joint program since 2007. The United Nations has designated 2001-2010 as the International Decade for a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the Children ofRead MoreReligious Unrest in Nigeria9418 Words   |  38 PagesTable of contents Dedication †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. ..i Preface †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.......ii Acknowledgement †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦iii Table of contents †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..IV Topic: religious unrest in Nigeria, causes and effects. Chapter 1 1.1 Definitions of religion. 1.2 Types of religion. 1.3 Types of religion and religious unrest in Nigeria. Chapter 2 2.1 causes of religious unrest Read MoreHindi Nibandh on Advantages of Mobile and Disadvantage17790 Words   |  72 Pagesthe Government of India. Shroff complained against the ‘indifference, if not discouragement’ with which the state treated entrepreneurs. At the same time as Shroff, but independently of him, a journalist named Philip Spratt was writing a series of essays in favour of free enterprise. Spratt was a Cambridge communist who was sent by the party in 1920s to foment revolution in the subcontinent. Detected in the act, he spent many years in an Indian jail. The books he read in the prison, and his marriage